Common neurological disorders and top causes Health

Common neurological disorders and top causes

The neurological system consists of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and muscles. So, a neurological disorder is brought on by an abnormality or dysfunction in the system or its components. As the brain controls the entire body, any disruption in its communication and structure might lead to physical symptoms and deterioration of overall health. Here is a look at everything one should know about neurological disorders:

Common neurological disorders
Central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction can cause various disorders. Here are a few common neurological disorders:

Headache: External factors can trigger pain-sensitive nerve endings, causing headaches. Headache is a prevalent neurological disorder and can develop in different forms, such as migraines, cluster headaches, and tension headaches. If one experiences persistent headaches, they should consult a doctor.

Dementia: Dementia is an umbrella term for a collection of neurological conditions affecting memory. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, which affects not only memory but also behavior, emotions, perceptions, and thinking.

Stroke: Strokes can cause serious damage to the brain. They develop due to impaired functioning of arteries that are connected to the brain. One may not know they are at risk of a stroke, but learning about early signs can help them seek immediate attention. Some of the tell-tale signs of a stroke include blurred vision, dizziness, loss of balance, severe headaches, and partial numbness.

Seizures: The brain usually generates electrical impulses at regular intervals. When this electrical activity is suddenly disrupted, one experiences seizures. This neurological disorder affects almost one in a hundred people in the country. Seizures are usually not life-threatening, but one can still sustain serious injuries if they collapse during an episode.

Parkinson’s disease: Parkinson’s is a slow, progressive neurological disorder. The disease first starts affecting the movement, causing tremors in the hands. Some common symptoms include constipation, muscle stiffness, stiff face, and speech alteration. People over 50 years are at a higher risk of developing this condition.

In addition, conditions like brain tumors, epilepsy, and sclerosis are serious neurological disorders.

Causes
The causes of neurological disorders can be categorized as the following:

Congenital causes: A disorder may be passed onto the child from the parents through genes and chromosomes. The precise causes could be inherited gene abnormalities, metabolic disorders, congenital malformation, and chromosome abnormalities.

Prenatal and perinatal causes: Neurological disorders can be caused during pregnancy (prenatal) and the period before, during, and after birth (perinatal). The exact causes include exposure to toxins and environmental factors, infections, complications during childbirth, and certain interaction effects, among other factors.

Acquired causes: A person can develop neurological disorders after birth due to external or environmental factors instead of inherited gene abnormalities. The causes include immune system disorders, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and neoplasms.

Diagnosis and management
Here are some common tests that are used to diagnose neurological disorders:

  • Electroencephalogram, which helps in examining brain activity
  • Electromyography to understand the muscle and nerve function
  • Genetic testing to determine the causes
  • Imaging tests such as CT, MRI scan, and ultrasound

Health professionals may recommend several measures to treat or alleviate the symptoms. Therapy, prescription treatment, pain management, lifestyle changes, and neuro-rehab treatment are some of the common treatment options for neurological disorders. For severe cases, the doctors may opt for surgery, radiation, radiosurgery, or deep brain stimulation.